Towards the origin of Novgorodа the Great bureaucracy in 1611-1617


From the first steps of Moscow power in Novgorod in the newly conquered country some elements of central government had been appeared: offices and officials Ц Moscow diaks and podТjachie. Firstly the officials came from Moscow and had no contacts with Novgorod[i]; then the local people begun to appear throw the bureaucracy. In the first years on Muscovite Novgorod they were the relatives of Muscovite gentry settled in Novgorod land in the time of Ivan III. But diak Andrey Vassiliev Bujnosov mentioned in 1566[ii] could be compared with just local men Ц Novgorod gentry Bujnosovs known even in 1500 in Vodskaya pyatina[iii]. In the same time when the civil government had been plotting the governing of church real estate appeared as well. I suppose that the straight system of the archbishop court described by B.D.Grekov was created not in pre-Muscovite period but just in 16th c. just following the exist state institutes[iv]. SophiaТs Court officials and gentry as a local group provided with land by Novgorod archbishop appeared in Novgorod about the mid-16th c., when we know this group for the first time.

Throw the 16th c. the numbered Novgorod service men developed altogether with the city, taking part in all the political events and troubles. Social mobility of these people was high enough; many times one could mention the moving of people from one social group to another[v]. That is especially obvious on the turning point of Novgorod history, in 1611-1617. In this time the official service became more prestigious and gainful than the average (military) service of a serviceman. As E.A.Kobzareva proved in this years the podТjachie had mush more chances to buy slaves than gentry[vi]. Probably that is a reason for the fact that a number of Novgorod gentry ask the government to enlist them to the strata of missionа podТjachie (the lowest level of bureaucracy) [vii].

The official governing of Novgorod that appeared in the Swedish time (1611-1617) followed the traditions plotted in 16th c. It is necessary to stress that the status of Novgorod offices in this time grow up: the local offices become to name central offices (prikazТes) very often.

The most known Novgorod official of the time is diak Ivan Timofeev. Anders Sjoberg[viii] and Lev Cherepnin[ix] had wrote about 2 his enemies who had accused Timofeev in suppression of state valuables. Great stylist. bright dealer of the Time of Troubles, Ivan Timofeev in the time of Novgorod-Sweden Alliance was not a member of Novgorod Government (being a high official in previous time, when Prince Andrew Kourakin was the Novgorod ruler). But in 1611-1617 he had some service in Novgorod offices. Among the really powering bureaucrats of high rank one could mention Tretjak Kopnin and Tomilo Sergeev (both soon transferred to Moscow side) Ц members of the Novgorod embassy to Sweden king Carl IX, powered diak Pyatoj Grigorjev, headed the Court Office since late 1612, and Semion Loutokhin Ц the second person in Novgorod official system, firstly (in 1611-1612) headed the Court Office and then transferred to head Novgorod Razrjad (Service Office) and Land-Owning office. I will stress my attention to his carrier and his origin.

When does the first information about diak Semion Loutokhin appear in the sources? In one act of 1612 I found the mentioning of the order (done in April, 15, 1611) by prince Ivan Odoevsky to the Novgorod Court Office to diak Semion Loutokhin to confiscate all the landownings given by tsar Vladislav[x].а In the eve of the overturn in July, 1611 we know the sign of diak Semion Loutokhin on the ask of general L.A.Veliaminov for 2 vedroТs of vodka (June, 12, 1611) [xi]. Probably firstly Loutokhin headed the Novgorod Court office (when diak Tretjak Kopnin had been absent[xii]). Lately this, the most profitable destignation, transferred to Pyatoj Grigorjev. The further biography of Loutokhin is connected with Razrjad. Probably he live until the power in Novgorod had been changed (according to S.B.Veselovsky, Loutokhin was diak in the Sweden times, from 1611/12 to April, 29, 1616; then since 1617 to November, 25, 1619 he was diak in Pscov , in 1619/20 Ц a ruler in Torzhok[xiii]). In 1617 Muscovite commissars who signed the Stolbovo Treaty asked Swedes to debt collection from the Уsilver master Nefedko TrofomovФ (in future the famous counter fighter who had minted the false coins with the name of tsar Mikhail Fedorovich in Korelaа - Swedish Kexholm), who did not pay 10 roubles debtа to diak Loutokhin and moved to the abroad[xiv].

In 1611-1617 40 people lived in LoutokhinТs yard. In the same time his allowance was really modest; in 1612/13 he received only 20 roubles[xv] (to be compared with the allowance of diak Mikhail Miloslavsky in 1620 Ц 150 roubles Ц see below).

Veselovsky knows the LoutokhinТs sone Ц Petr Semionovich (SemionТs son) much better (but he associated two Piotrs Loutokhin in one article Ц one Tara ruler (1614-1617) died in Tara and Petr Semionovich Loutokhin). The last person, according to Veselovsky, was ruler in Galich in 1619/20-1620/21, since 1637/38 to November, 29, 1638 he was diak in Novgorod the Great, in September, 1642 Ц diak of the Treasury Court Office in Moscow, in May, 16, 1644 Ц diak in Galitskaya ChetТ, in July, 15, 1644 Ц diak in Detective Office. In summer, 1645 he received the oath for a new tsar Alexey Mikhajlovich in Novgorod and in 1646/47-1648/49, also since December, 13, 1650 to 1652/53 Ц diak in Stable Office. Furtherly I will return to Petr Loutokhin; now I would like to stress that his connection with Novgorod the Great looks really stable even after the continuing of his carrier in Moscow:а he was the person who was entrusted with the Novgorod oath in politically intricate moment of mid-government in 1645. It is important to stress that the VeselovskyТs reference book is not a finished research but his own workbook; of course we can not anticipate the full information about all diaks andа podТjachie there. The data of Novgorod State Office of 1611-1617 preserved in Riksarkivet, Stockholm, provide much more information about the bureaucracy of early 17th c.

When the most of high rank bureaucrats of Novgorod in the Time of Troubles were not of Novgorod origin (diak Afinogen Golenischev, been killed in July, 1811[xvi], diaks Petr Tretjakov and Denis Sofonov, former diaks of False-Dimitry II, were from Moscow[xvii]), Semion LoutokhinТs origin seems to be from Novgorod Land.

In the Record book of St.Sophia part of Novgorod, 1580s, one could mention 2 representatives of Loutokhin family. Among the ArchbishopТs gentlemen yards placed Уon Chudintseva street from Stone Fortress to the Wooden Fortress on the Right sideФ there was a waste place of Ivan Zakharjev (36x16 meters) and the immense yard of УArchbishopТs Court Official Gnevash Dmitriev Loutokhin, that before was princeТs Aleksey SolntsevТsФ (103x30 meters) [xviii]. Other Gnevash LoutokhinТs yard (60x32 meters) could be founded near Chudintseva Street[xix].а So we had identified some relatives of further Novgorod diak. But it is not enough to prove his Novgorod origin.

Let us look through the record including the information about the Novgorod men-slave-owners of late 16th-early 17th c. According to A.I.Yakovlev in this time such Loutokhins had marked the slave-owning: Bogdan Ivanov (in 1599/1600, 1600/01, 1601/02 and 1607/08), Gavril Ivanov (in 1603/04 and 1607/08); also they both togetherа (in 1599/1600 and 1600/01), Vasilij Shestov (in 1599/1600 and 1600/01), already known Ivan Zakharjev (in 1601/02, 1603/04 and 1608/09), Petr Semionov (in 1607/08 and 1608/09) and Timothey Gnevashev (in 1599/1600). The last person probably must be the son of Gnevash Dmitriev Loutokhin, the ArchbishopТs Court Official in 1580s. All of the mentioned slave-owners are named the St.Sophia (ArchbishopТs) gentlemen[xx].

So we had constituted that in late 16th-early 17th c.а the numbered family of Loutokhins lived in Novgorod and all its membersТ service was connectedа with St.Sophia Court, meanwhile some representatives of the family has high rank on the archbishopТ service.

Probably there must be other sources that give information about this family. Let us turn to the landownership. It is known that the provision of St.Sophia Court was provided in significant part at its landowning expense.а The most of St.Sophia land was in Onega region, in the area of SvirТ and OjatТ rivers, near Sermaksa and St.Alexander Svirsky Monastery.

The sources on the landownership of St.Sophia gentlemen were found by B.D.Grekov in early 20th c. The deeds by Novgorod Archbishops for their gentlemen, diaks and different officials are held mostly in 3 books of St.Sophia Act Book Collection (SPbII, kol. 2, op. 1, d. 63, 64, 74).

Among the landowners mentioned in these books one could meet Gnevash Dmitriev Loutokhin Ц the Archbishop LeonidТs gentleman received deeds for the land in Pirkinichi pogost and in Vodskaya pyatina in 1570s Ц 1590s[xxi]. The last of those deeds, 1596 has a note УDiedФ [xxii]. There is the deed done in the same day addressed to GnevashТs son - Semion[xxiii] (from some more late sources we know the Christian name of Gnevash Ц Mikhail; and diak Semion Loutokhin in 1611-1616 is often named Semion Mikhailovich) [xxiv]. The statement about GnevashТs death in 1596 is in discrepancy with the information from Novgorod Kabala Books. On October, 14, 1594 one family became slaves of St.Sophia gentleman Ivan Aleksandrov Myasnoy. The leader of the family, to his words, was before the voluntary slave of Gnevash Loutokhin and had become freeman when Уthe Tsar punished Gnevash and send him to AstrakhanТФ [xxv]. What was GnevashТs punishment and what was the reason for it Ц we do not know.

1596 is not the very first mention of Semion GnevashТs son Loutokhin. Even in May, 1577 he received ZabolotТe estate on Volkhov, but very soon the estate was taken from him and had become The St.Sophia estate (that probably stress the quality of the estate)[xxvi]. Later, when his father was alive yet, Semion Loutokhin received a credential for the estate in Pirkinichi pogost that he owned for a time[xxvii]. In the time of metropolitans Varlaam and Isidor Semion Loutokhin still was one of the St.Sophia gentry and landowner, owning the fatherТs estate in Varbinichi and Vardimola. The last mention of him in metropolitansТ estate credential belongs to January, 1609[xxviii].

In November, 1611 Petr SemionТs son Loutokhin receive an estate in Pirkinichi pogost[xxix]. It is important to stress that the identity of him and the above mentioned diak of 1630s could be disputed by the nickname mentioned in the credential Ц Menshoj (The Young). May be Semion Loutokhin had two sons named Petr? But, unlike other members of the family, this Petr SemionТs son Loutokhin was not mentioned in other metropolitansТ credentials.

From that credentials we also know about the estate of SemionТs brother, the second son of Gnevash Loutokhin, Timothey (I mentioned him above as a slave-owner). After his father death he, in the same day with his brother, received a credential for the estate in Pirkinichi pogost but soon Уleft the St.Sophia CourtФ[xxx].

There is also some information about Ivan Zakharjev Loutokhin Ц the mentioned Novgorod yard-owner of 1580s. It is interesting that the very first estate credentials with his name belongs only to 1610s[xxxi] (he owned estates in Gorodische pogost, on Motokhov Isle). After Novgorod returned under the power of Moscow czars in 1617 Ivan Zakharjev Loutokhin received new estate credentials from metropolitan Makarey fro the previous estate and for the new one, near the city Ц At Savior on Piskupitsy. The last estate Loutokhin received in January, 1620 as the MetropolitanТs Court Official (as we remember in 1580s Gnevash Loutokhin had been the ArchbishopsТ Official)[xxxii]. Probably, Ivan Loutokhin Ц the owner of Miloslavsko (NB!) village near Piskupitsy in 1612 Ц is also Ivan Zakharjev Loutokhin[xxxiii]. From some other estate credentials we know about IvanТs son, Bogdan (probably he had marked slave-owning with his brother Gavril in 1599-1608), who received in 1607 the estate nearby Semion Loutokhin Ц in Varbinichi, Pirkinichi pogost[xxxiv].

Here, in estate credentials, we find the facts about the other branch of Loutokhin family Ц the descendants of GnevashТs brother Ц Shestoj Loutokhin (very likely both of them were children of St.Sophia landowner Mitya (Dimitry?) Loutokhin, known in 1555/56[xxxv]). Shestoj (Shestak) received estate in Pirkinichy pogost immediately with his brother, in the time of Archbishop Leonid[xxxvi]. In 1578 he died and on December, 22, 1578 archbishop Aleksander granted his widow Agathya and sons Ц Vasilij, Boris and Maksim with their father estate[xxxvii]. We have no events about the youngest, Maksim; Boris Loutokhin received a local estate in 1604[xxxviii], and the descendants of Vasilij (who received separate estate just in 1578, first in Vazhensky pogost[xxxix], then in St.George on Kozhela pogost[xl]) is well known up to mid-17th c. Timothey and Ivan аVasilijТs children were granted with estate in 1621[xli]. Then goes no events about Ivan (provided it was not he who had been send to govern ZaonezhТe in 1630 Ц that must mean Ivan left St.Sophia service and became a state gentry[xlii]), but Timothey received additions to his estate up to 1643[xliii]. He died probably in 1654 when his widow Anna and also children received a part of fatherТs estate[xliv]; we know about his only alive child Ц son Nikiphor[xlv]. The other son of Vasilij Loutokhin, Boris, after the Time of Troubles received an estate on SvirТ, near St.Ilia on SvirТ monastery[xlvi] and in October, 1640 Ц an estate in St.Mikhail in Tervinichi pogost[xlvii]. The last estate was inherited by his son, Photej in February, 1653[xlviii].

Probably Savva and Ignatey Loutokhins Ц Novgorod gentry took part in the events of 1650 had belonged to the next generation of the family. Both of them were in Novgorod in the beginning of the revolt, both of them signed the cityТs petition and later dishonored their signs[xlix]. Savva Loutokhin was the head of Novgorod gentry, who had met and supported the Уtruce envoyФ, Jakov Solovtsov on March, 27, 1650[l]


There could be mentioned the other family in Novgorod administration originated from St.Sophia Court that, as Loutokhin, reached in 17th c. high service ranks. It is MiloslavskijТs (not to entangle with MiloslavskijТs Muscovite boyars). The Diak of St.Sophia Court Stables Ivan Dmitriev son Miloslavskij, according to Velelovskij, is mentioned in 1563[li]. Little earlier, in 1555/56, he is one of St.Sophia landowners in St.Dimitrey pogost in Sotsky[lii]. We know about his two sons Ц Luka and Mikhail. Both of them are of great interest.

The earliest source telling about Luka Miloslavskij is the estate credential by Archbishop Leonid, 1573. Probably, Luka was the junior (in any case not the oldest) son of Ivan Miloslavskijа and his wife Maria, because in 1573 he was granted with the estate together with his mother[liii] and in all later contexts he always was mentioned after his brother, Mikhail. Suddenly 4 years later we meet Luka IvanТs son Miloslavskij among the members of the Court regiment headed by Prince Daniil Borisovich Priimkov Rostovskij that took part in CzarТs campaign of 1577 Ц Уto clean CzarТs property Ц the LiflandФ[liv]. How could become the son of St.Sophia landowner, at the age of 16-17, a member of CzarТs Court? Ц We do not know exactly. Probably one could see here some consequences of Novgorod defeat of 1570, when the czar, according to Skrynnikov, executed Ivan Miloslavskij together with his brothers as other St.Sophia gentry[lv]. Probably at that time a part of St.Sophia Court could be consisted to the CzarТs Court, including young Luka Miloslavskij.

But in early 1580s Luka and Mikhail Miloslavskijs are St.Sophia gentry again. They live on Chudintseva Street[lvi]. In the same time they own the czars (not St.Sophia) estate in Shelonskaja pyatina[lvii]. In 1601/02 Luka Miloslavskij marked his slave-owning, year later the same was done by his son, Ivan[lviii].

In the Time of Troubles Luka Miloslavskij occupied different responsible appointments. In 1610 he is the second governor of Oreshek (together with Prince Ivan Semenovich Putyatin)[lix], probably at this time Luka Miloslavskij is ShujskyТs adherent Ц he was appointed on the post in Oreshek after Smirnoj OtrepТev came to Novgorod in January, 1610[lx]. On October, 13, 1610 Jacob De la Gardie wrote a letter to Oreshek governors, Prince Putyatin and Luka Miloslavskij[lxi]. In a year, in August, 1611, the Novgorod government send Luka Miloslavskij to Staraya Rusa for making a new record and tax-paying book of the town and its district[lxii]. That means that Luka Miloslavskij left Oreshek before the Sweden troops had siege the fortress in autumn, 1611. In the next year, 1612/13, Luka Miloslavskij is mentioned as one of the tenants of the lake Dontso, near Novgorod, formerly Ц together with Mikhail Miloslavskij, at that time Ц the private[lxiii]. This event probably shows that in 1612/13 Mikhail Miloslavskij was absent in Novgorod, in the same time, he was alive (see below). In September, 1614, Luka Miloslavskij again created a record and tax-paying book of Staraya Rusa district[lxiv]. In 1615 he is one of the sponsors of Nikita Suponev[lxv]. Probably in 1615 he was about 50 years old (we know he began his state service between 1573 and 1577, so he was born between 1558 and 1562). He is mentioned also in the gentry list in 1619. We also know his sons ЦIvan, the above mentioned, and David, who lended money to a townsman in April, 1616[lxvi].

LukaТs brother, probably the elder one, Mikhail Miloslavskij was for the first time mentioned in the record book of Novgorod created in 1580s. Very likely in the beginning of the Time of Troubles he moved to Moscow. In Food-giving (СkormlenayaТ) book of Galitch Quarter (ChetТ) Mikhail Miloslavskij is mentioned repeatedly. In 1603/04 he took money from the Quarter for Zloba Pushkin, Princes Vasilij Kropotkin and Mikhail Myshetskij and also for himself and his brother Luka (both of them received 15 rubles from the Quarter)[lxvii]. After the Time of Troubles Mikhail Miloslavskij was one of the first diaks appointed to Novgorod by Moscow government (in 1620/21 his salary was 150 rubles)[lxviii]. He stayed on this post up to 1621[lxix]. After leaving the diak post Mikhail Miloslavskij stayed in Novgorod. In 1630 he and his bastard[lxx] son Andrew took for 400 rubles deposit the Nikita MiljukovТs estate on the North-East bank of IlmenТ Lake and after MiljukovТs death the neighbor lands were received by other Mikhail MiloslavskijТs son, Grigorij, who died in 1640. GrigorijТs widow Anna and daughter Agathya died in 1650. Very soon the estate moved to Iversky monastery.[lxxi] In 1654 Mikhail MiloslavskijТs yard in Novgorod also moved to Iversky monastery[lxxii]. His true daughter Maria married Prince Efim Myshetskij and gave birth to two princes Ц Daniil and Boris who were still alive in 1651/52[lxxiii].

We have also numerous information about Grigorij Miloslavskij. For the first time he was mentioned in historical sources at the marking slave-owning in 1603/04[lxxiv]. In the first years of Sweden-Novgorod political alliance Grigorij Miloslavskij was still on the state service: he is mentioned among the tenants in 1611/12[lxxv], he was tried with S.M.Anichkov for the offence in January, 1614[lxxvi]. The successfully preserved part of his petition given before April, 1614 is of a great interest. He requested for the land estate being telling about the painful fate of his father, the above mentioned Mikhail Miloslavskij, who in the time of Vasilij Shujsky had been sent as a diak to Ivangorod and, Уwhen in Ivangorod troubles had begun, his father was prisoned by Ivangorod settlers. And when the Vor (False-Dimitrey III. Ц A.S.) went to Pskov heа took my father as a prisonerФ[lxxvii]. Improbable everything had been happened just as simple as Grigorij Miloslavskij described; perhaps the Mikhail MiloslavskijТs oath to False-Dimitrey III was voluntary, he stayed in Pskov and then allowed the RomanovТs election together with the city. Yet in 1615 Grigorij Miloslavskij was among combatants near Pskov, where he struggled again Swedes and Novgorodians. On May, 12, 1615 he, being mentioned as Novgorod gentry was sent from Moscow to Pskov with money salary[lxxviii]. Probably his passage from Novgorod to Pskov appeared during the events near Bronnitsy and Staraya Rusa in summer, 1614. The reasons of such a passage are utterly understandable: his father was on Moscow side at that time. After the return of Novgorod under the power of Moscow Grigorij Miloslavskij remained a landowner in Novgorod Land[lxxix].

I would like to stress that Miloslavskij family was never named as St.Sophia landowner one but its connection with St.Sophia Court is undoubted. The representatives of the family one can found both on the St.Sophia and State service. The story of Luka and Mikhail MiloslavskijТsа relatives is characteristic one. The other branch of Miloslavskij family were the neighbors ofа Luka and Mikhail in Shelonskaja pyatina; they never had been on the St.Sophia service.

Zhdan (Stepan?) Andreev son Miloslavskij was a landowner of Jastrebinskij pogost, received the estate in 1571. 7 years later, when Luka Miloslavskij took part in CzarТs campaign to Livonia , Zhdan Miloslavskij, gentleman of Vodskaya pyatina, was send by governor of Kreuzborg to Levdun for horses, but fled home having stolen the horses[lxxx]. Soon, in 1578/79 he signed the list of dowry of Osan VolynskijТs sister[lxxxi] and on August, 13, 1588 Ц the list of Grigorij GurТevТs daughter[lxxxii]. In 1586 he sponsored the nedelschik (sheriff) of Shelonskaja pyatina[lxxxiii] and it is the last mention of the gentleman. Then his son, Andrew is known: he owned the estate in Lyadskij pogost in 1585/86[lxxxiv], in 1597[lxxxv], in 1599/1600 and in 1607/08[lxxxvi] marked the slave-owning; in January, 1598 sponsored Ivan Sekirin[lxxxvii] and in the same year divided slaves with his brother, Petr ZhdanТs son[lxxxviii]. In the Time of Troubles Andrew Miloslavskij appeared in Moscow. On January, 6, 1614 he received the 3 ruble addition to his 25 ruble salary; the Food-giving book of Vladimir Quarter 1614/1615 adjusted that that addition was for his service near Karachev and PutivlТ[lxxxix]. Very likely his son Ivan was in Moscow at the same time who received his first 7 ruble salary from Kostroma Quarter in 1612[xc].

Another Andrew Miloslavskij, probably Andrew Zhdan sonСs nephew, a landowner of Vodskaya pyatina, diedа to September, 1613, being married on Varvara Temireva Neelova, pregnant in the time of his death[xci]. Later, in October 1615 his and Osip MiloslavskijТs estates in Vodskaya pyatina are mentioned as waste and escheat[xcii].

One more branch of Miloslavskij family were the owners of small estates in St.Klement in Tesovo pogost, after its distribution to local service estates in 1550; up to 1570s this branch suppressed[xciii]. Luka MiloslavskijТs descendants served state service in Shelonskaja pyatina up to the end of 18th c.[xciv]


Among other bright persons appeared in the time of Novgorod-Sweden political alliance 1611-1617 Ivan Negodyaev must be mentioned. In December 1611 he was sent to Karelskaja half of Vodskaya pyatina for keeping money and food for Sweden soldiers placed in Tesovo. In the deeds of his chief, Grigorij MuravТev, Negodyaev found a kind of discrimination and wrote a petition to Novgorod government. After Negodyaev sent 120 rubles to Tesovo (a great sum of money for the deserted Vodskaya pyatina) and little bit dawdled with the other money, an inspection committee was appointedа - Уgovernor Grigorij MuravТev sent his officials Ivan Serkov and Vasilij Kolobov and ordered them to take the food from me, NegodyaevФ; moreover, MuravТev sent the constable Timothey VelТjashev to search the reasons of the dawdling. After the searching all the accusations on Negodyaev were withdrew. But the act did not finish on this step. УThere comes MuravТevТs officials and tell me: now You had successfully escaped the death, but wait for the trouble in future because of your earlier not-friendliness to Grigorij: You had sent to MuravТevТs estate officials for the milition and you have beat GrigorijТs steward Jakush. And now Grigorij wants You to be shamed ten times than You had shamed his steward and destroy Your hartФ[xcv]. That is a picture how the people of early 17th c. Appeared themselves on the state service. After the event Negodyaev had no case to serve together with MuravТev. But he rest in Novgorod for a few time. According to the salary list of 1611-1613 Negodyaev was the gentleman of Derevskaja pyatina with land schedule of 300 chetТs[xcvi]. On April, 26, 1614 he sponsored Ivan PerfirТev[xcvii]. But in July, 1614 Ivan Negodyaev himself fled to УMoscow regimentsФ and his estate was distributed[xcviii].

The earliest information about Ivan Negodyaev belongs to October, 29, 1594. This day he became a slave of Roman Neelov Ц a bright personality of the Time of Troubles, served both in SkopinТs army, to king Sigismund of Poland and outlived the Time of Troubles and continued service after 1617[xcix]. Only little disconcert appear if the Slave book named Negodyaev УIvan TitТs sonФ and in the most of later sources he was named УIvan DimitreyТs sonФ. According the description, he was middle height with brown hair and mustaches[c].

In May 1609 Ivan Negodyaev received estate in St.Petr pogost in Kunino from metropolitan Isidor[ci] (a propos, in 1597 Miloslavskijs ought to be his neighbours[cii]). After Novgorod return under the Moscow power we found Negodyaev on the service of metropolitans Makarey[ciii] and Affonij[civ]. About October, 1643 Ivan Negodyaev died and his estate in Pirkinichi pogost transferred to his sons, Makarey and Fedor[cv].а Both this St.Sophia gentlemen were the bright participants in the events of 1650 in Novgorod. Fedor Negodyaev was the most famous: on April, 8, 1650, he, as his father in 1614, fled from Novgorod to Bronnitsy to general Prince Ivan Khovanskij and gave the petition where he stressed his not participation in the revolt.[cvi] (although metropolitan Nikon named Negodyaevs the main initiators of the events[cvii]).



Some other persons noticeable in Novgorod in 1611-1617 were connected with St.Sophia Court. Dimitrey Nefniev (Trenefniev), who recorded in the first weeks of Sweden rule some Novgorod districts[cviii] seems to be the son of Menshoj KuzТmaТs son Nefniev, private diak of Novgorod Archbishops Leonid[cix] and Aleksander[cx], who in 1580s lived on Chudintseva Street, not far from Gnevash Loutokhin and Miloslavskijs[cxi]. A propos, according to Veselovskij, MenshojТs brother (so,а DimitreyТs uncle), Ivanаа KuzТmaТs son Nefniev was on the state service in Smolensk in 1559, on the Land Assembly in 1566 and at Great Prince Simeon Bekbulatovich in1585[cxii].

Other example. Vasilij, Ivan and Postnik Ananjiny children Zadenskijs Ц famous Novgorod clerks in 1611-1616 lived on Fedorova Street and served in Service Land Office very likely were the relatives of St.Sophia gentleman Nikifor BogdanТs son Zadenskij received in 1599 land estate in Obonezhskaja pyatina[cxiii].

So we revealed that a large part of St.Soiphia Court members achieved significant appointments in Novgorod throw the Time of Troubles. Very often their carrier elapsed in the conditions of Civil war was the impulse of their future ascent to the highest ranks of State service. However using of St.Sophia gentlemen on the state service was of wide practice also in previous times: Petr Peshkov, St.Sophia gentleman, was killed near Kolover, Уin German landФ in 1572/73, during the csarТs campaign[cxiv]; also the St.Sophia gentlemen were send to struggle against False-Dimitrey I in 1606/07[cxv].

The other important issue is the origin of St.Sophia gentry. I did not touch some other famous in Novgorod St.Sophia families Ц Tjapolkovs and Balavenskijs, about which we know that their origin is connected with local pre-Muscovite Novgorod landowners Ц so called svoezemtsy[cxvi]. Land books of Obonezhskaja pyatina tell about some svoezemtsyТs УMoscow service acceptanceФ in 1554/55[cxvii], after which Tjapolkovs appeared on St.Sophia service. Probably, some other St.Sophia gentlemen families originated from local landowner groups of the territories belonged to St.Sophia.

To crown all I would like to stress a special significance of collections of St.Sophia estate credentials numerously used in the article. The poor preservedа documents of 1600-1611 Novgorod kept in the collections and it is underestimated source on this period yet.

[i] Orlova E.O. Pomesnoe obespechenie d'yakov za sluzhbu v Novgorode v XVI veke. In Proshloe Novgoroda i Novgorodskoj zemli. Novgorod, 1997. S. 85-90.

[ii] SPbII, kol. 174, op. 1, d. 275.

[iii] Novgorodskie piscovye knigi, izdannye imp. Arxeograficheskoj komissiej. T. 3. SPb., 1868. St. 75-76.

[iv] Grekov B.D. Novgorodskij dom Svyatoj Sofii. SPb., 1914.

[v] I wrote a little about some respects of the theme: Selin A.A. Sud'by novgorodskix svoezemcev v XVI-XVII vekax. Zametki po istorii sudeb potomkov zemlevladel'cev respublikanskogo perioda. In: Novgorodskij Istoricheskij sbornik. Vyp. 9 (19). SPb., 2002.

[vi] Kobzareva E.I. Novgorodskie sluzhilye sosloviya v period shvedskoj okkupacii goroda. In: Proshloe Novgoroda i Novgorodskoj zemli. Materialy nauch. konf. 11-13 noyabrya 1999 g. Ch. 1. Velikij Novgorod, 1999. S. 80-85.

[vii] Riksarkivet, Stockholm, Ockupationsarckivet från Novgorod, serie 2:174:7; Riksarkivet, Stockholm, Ockupationsarkivet från Novgorod, serie 2:174:62; Riksarkivet, Stockholm, Ockupationsarkivet från Novgorod, serie 2:174:64, et al. Hereby I gratitude Laila Nordquist for showing me the documents.

[viii] Sjöberg A. Ivan Timofeev and is Two still Unidentified enemies in Novgorod. In: Scando-Slavica. Vol. 26. 1980. P. 105-113.

[ix] Cherepnin L.V. Materialy po istorii russkoj kul'tury i russko-shvedskix kul'turnyx svyazej XVII v. v arxivax Shvecii. In: Trudy Otdela drevnerusskoj literatury. T. 7. 1961. S. 464-465.

[x] Riksarkivet, Stockholm, Ockupationsarkivet från Novgorod, serie 2:351:40-41.

[xi] Riksarkivet, Stockholm, Ockupationsarkivet från Novgorod, serie 2:124:178.

[xii] Riksarkivet, Stockholm, Ockupationsarkivet från Novgorod, serie 2:351:14-16 (Semion Loutokhin is named as Court Diak).

[xiii] Veselovskij S.B. D'yaki i pod'yachie XV-XVII vekov. M., 1975. S. 305.

[xiv] Zverev S.V. Denezhnoe obrawenie v Keksgol'mskom lene v pervoj polovine XVII v. In: Rossiya i Shveciya v srednevekov'e i novoe vremya: arxivnoe i muzejnoe nasledie. M., 2002 (Trudy GIM. Vyp. 133). S. 176.

[xv] Riksarkivet, Stockholm, Ockupationsarkivet fr?n Novgorod, serie 2:289:10, 7.

[xvi] Sedov P.V. Zaxvat Novgoroda shvedami v 1611 g. In: Novgorodskij Istoricheskij sbornik. Vyp. 4 (14). SPb., 1993. S. 122. S.B.Veselovsky did not know about the death place of Afinogen Golenischev and wrote about it in his biography Уfrom the Ivan PlescheevТs wordsФа addressed to VladislavТs Government that Golenischev died Уiv VorТs armyФ Ц Veselovskij S.B. D'yaki i pod'yachieЕ S. 120.

[xvii] Veselovskij S.B. D'yaki i pod'yachieЕ S. 484-485, 522-523.

[xviii] Kniga piscovaya po Novgorodu Velikomu konca XVI v. / Pod red. V.V.Majkova. SPb., 1911. S. 94-95.

[xix] Ibid., S. 99, 102.

[xx] Novgorodskie zapisnye kabal'nye knigi 100-104 i 111 godov / Podg. A.I.Yakovlev. M.; L., 1938

Ukazatel'. S. 392.

[xxi] St.Petersburg Institute of History, Manuscript Archive (below SPbII), kol. 2, op. 1, d. 63, l. 73; SPbII, kol. 2, op. 1, d. 63, l. 3 ob.; SPbII, kol. 2, op. 1, d. 63, l. 29 ob.; SPbII, kol. 2, op. 1, d. 63, l. 114. It is important to stress that Gnevash Loutokhin is not the earliest representative of the family. From one estate credential we know about former St.Sophia gentleman Koverya Loutokhin Ц Akty istoricheskie. T. 1. SPb., 1841. ╣ 185. S. 348.

[xxii] SPbII, kol. 2, op. 1, d. 74, l. 35.

[xxiii] SPbII, kol. 2, op. 1, d. 74, l. 36.

[xxiv] See: Riksarkivet, Stockholm,а Ockupationsarckivet från Novgorod, serie 2:73:65.

[xxv] Novgorodskie zapisnye kabal'nye knigi 100-104 i 111 godov. M.; L., 1938. Chast' 1. St. 8-10.

[xxvi] SPbII, kol. 2, op. 1, d. 63, l. 20 ob.-22.

[xxvii] SPbII, kol. 2, op. 1, d. 63, l. 16; SPbII, kol. 2, op. 1, d. 63, l. 46.

[xxviii] SPbII, kol. 2, op. 1, d. 74, l. 82; SPbII, kol. 2, op. 1, d. 74, l. 83 ob.; SPbII, kol. 2, op. 1, d. 74, l. 83 ob.

[xxix] SPbII, kol. 2, op. 1, d. 74, l. 146.

[xxx] SPbII, kol. 2, op. 1, d. 74, l. 37.

[xxxi] SPbII, kol. 2, op. 1, d. 74, l. 142 ob.

[xxxii] SPbII, kol. 2, op. 1, d. 74, l. 161; SPbII, kol. 2, op. 1, d. 64, l. 33; SPbII, kol. 2, op. 1, d. 64, l. 53.

[xxxiii] Riksarkivet, Stockholm, Ockupationsarckivet från Novgorod, serie I: 28::8.

[xxxiv] SPbII, kol. 2, op. 1, d. 74, l. 112.

[xxxv] Platezhnaya kniga Ladozhskogo namestnichestva Obonezhskoj pyatiny i Oshtinskogo stana. 1555/56. In: Piscovye knigi Novgorodskoj zemli. T. 2. Piscovye knigi Obonezhskoj pyatiny XVI v. / Sost. K.V.Baranov. SPb., 1999. S. 49.

[xxxvi] SPbII, kol. 2, op. 1, d. 63, l. 74.

[xxxvii] Akty Istoricheskie. T. 1. SPb., 1841. ╣ 183. S. 345-346.

[xxxviii] SPbII, kol. 2, op. 1, d. 74, l. 79.

[xxxix] SPbII, kol. 2, op. 1, d.а 74, l. 4. Later this estate was transferred to other St.Sophia gentleman, Maksim Kachalov.

[xl] SPbII, kol. 2, op. 1, d. 74, l. 141; AI. T. 2. SPb., 1842. ╣ 330. S. 397-398.

[xli] SPbII, kol. 2, op. 1, d. 64, l. 34 ob.

[xlii] Otpiska novgorodskix voevod v Moskvu. 1630. In: Yakubov K. Rossiya i Shveciya v XVII v. SPb., 1897. S. 287-289.

[xliii] SPbII, kol. 2, op. 1, d. 64, l. 52; SPbII, kol. 2, op. 1, d. 74, l. 239 ob.; SPbII, kol. 2, op. 1, d. 74, l. 260 ob.

[xliv] SPbII, kol. 2, op. 1, d. 74, additional paper to l. 290.

[xlv] SPbII, kol. 2, op. 1, d. 74, l. 290 ob.

[xlvi] SPbII, kol. 2, op. 1, d. 74, l. 166 ob.; SPbII, kol. 2, op. 1, d. 74, l. 200; SPbII, kol. 2, op. 1, d. 74, l. 248.

[xlvii] SPbII, kol. 2, op. 1, d. 74, l. 250.

[xlviii] SPbII, kol. 2, op. 1, d. 74, l. 287.

[xlix] Myatezhnoe vremya. Sledstvennoe deloа o novgorodskom vosstanii 1650 goda. SPb.; Kishinev, 2001. ╣ 59. S. 154-156.

[l] Ibid., S. 166-172.

[li] Veselovskij S.B. D'yaki i pod'yachieЕ S. 332.

[lii] Platezhnaya kniga Ladozhskogo namestnichestva... S. 51.

[liii] SPbII, kol. 2, op. 1, d. 63, l. 99.

[liv] Vel'yaminov-Zernov V.V. Issledovanie o Kasimovskix caryax i carevichax. Ch. 2. SPb., 1864. S. 45.

[lv] Skrynnikov R.G. Tragediya Novgoroda. M., 1994. S. 85.

[lvi] лFrom Chudintseva Street on the left to the side-street to Apostles on the right sideЕ The Yard of Luka and Mikhail IvanТs children Miloslavskijs╗ - Kniga piscovaya po Novgorodu VelikomuЕ S. 99.

[lvii] Rossijskij Gosudarstvennyj Arhiv Drevnih Aktov (below RGADA), f. 1209, op. 1, d. 16942, l. 166.

[lviii] Novgorodskie zapisnye kabal'nye knigi 100-104 i 111 godov / Podg. A.I.Yakovlev. M.; L., 1938. Ukazatel'. S. 398.

[lix] Sabler G. Sobranie russkix pamyatnikov, izvlechennyx iz semejnogo arxiva grafov Delagardi. In: Uchenye zapiski Yur'evskogo universiteta. 1896. Dokument ╣ 3. S. 17-19.

[lx] Shaskol'skij I.P. Shvedskaya intervenciya v Karelii v nachale XVII veka. Petrozavodsk, 1950. S. 58.

[lxi] Kordt V.A. Mittheilungen aus dem Briefwechsel des Grafen Jacob de la Gardie. In: Uchenye zapiski Yur'evskogo universiteta. 1894. ╣ 2. . 11.

[lxii] Dopolnenija k aktam istoricheskim. T. 1. SPb., 1846. ╣ 160. S. 278-280.

[lxiii] Riksarkivet, Stockholm, Ockupationsarckivet från Novgorod, serie I: 34:131.

[lxiv] Riksarkivet, Stockholm, Ockupationsarckivet från Novgorod, serie I: 106.

[lxv] Riksarkivet, Stockholm, Ockupationsarckivet från Novgorod, serie 2: 22:8.

[lxvi] Sundberg H. The Novgorod Kabala Books of 1614-1616. Text and commentary (Acta Universitatis Stockolmiensis. Stockholm Slavic Studies, vol. 14). Stockholm, 1982. P. 97.

[lxvii] Chetvertchiki Smutnogo vremeni. 1604-1617 gg. (Smutnoe vremya Moskovskogo gosudarstva. Vyp. 9) / Pred. L.M.Suxotina. In: Chtenija v Obschestve istorii I drevnostej Rossijskih. 1912. Kn. 2. S. 10, 17, 18.

[lxviii] Smetnyj spisok novgorodskix chetvertnyx denezhnyx doxodov na 1620/21 i 1621/22 gg. In: Opis' Novgoroda 1617 g. Ch. 2. M., 1984. S. 228.

[lxix] Sobranie Gosudarstvennyh gramot I dogovorov. Ch. 3. SPb., 1822. ╣ 57. S. 227-233.

[lxx] Timoshenkova Z.A. Zemlevladenie Iverskogo monastyrya v XVII veke In: Vestnik Pskovskogo vol'nogo universiteta. T. 3. 2000. ╣ 1-3. S. 18, prim. 23.

[lxxi] SpBII, kol. 181, op. 1, d. 329, ы. 39-40. Hereby I gratitude P.V.Sedov for attracting my attention to this document.

[lxxii] Timoshenkova Z.A. Zemlevladenie Iverskogo monastyryaЕ S. 13.

[lxxiii] Ibid., S. 18, prim. 23.

[lxxiv] Novgorodskie zapisnye kabal'nye knigi 100-104 i 111 godov / Podg. A.I.Yakovlev. M.; L., 1938. Ukazatel'. S. 398.

[lxxv] Riksarkivet, Stockholm, Ockupationsarckivet från Novgorod, serie I: 136:242.

[lxxvi] Riksarkivet, Stockholm, Ockupationsarckivet från Novgorod, serie I: 5:68.

[lxxvii] Riksarkivet, Stockholm, Ockupationsarkivet från Novgorod, serie 2:а 54:10 back.

[lxxviii] Prixodno-rasxodnaya kniga Razryada 123 g. In: Russkaja Istoricheskaja Bibliooteka. T. 28. S. 340.

[lxxix] Spiski russkix perebezhchikov, na kotoryx byli zayavleny pretenzii so storony shvedskix vlastej. 1618-1623. In:а Dela Tajnogo prikaza. T. 4. L., 1926 (Russkaja Istoricheskaja Bibliooteka. T. 38).а Stb. 455-484.

[lxxx] Buganov V.I. Perepiska Gorodovogo prikaza s voevodami Livonskij gorodov v 1577-1578 godax. ╣ 10 // Arheograficheskij ezhegodnik za 1964 g. M., 1965. S. 299-300.

[lxxxi] Russkaja Istoricheskaja Bibliooteka (below Ц RIB). T. 17. SPb., 1898. ╣ 440-448. Stb. 162-165.

[lxxxii] RIB. T. 17. SPb., 1898. ╣ 15-23. Stb. 6-9.

[lxxxiii] Sbornik Novgorodskogo Obschestva ljubitelej drevnostej. Vyp. 5. 1911. S. 4-5.

[lxxxiv] RGADA, f. 1209, op. 1, d. 16942, l. 166 ob.

[lxxxv] RIB. T. 17. SPb., 1898. ╣ 48-50. Stb. 16-17.

[lxxxvi] Novgorodskie zapisnye kabal'nye knigi 100-104 i 111 godov / Podg. A.I.Yakovlev. M.; L., 1938. Ukazatel'. S. 398.

[lxxxvii] RIB. T. 17. SPb., 1898. ╣ 502-503. Stb. 183-185.

[lxxxviii] RIB. T. 17. SPb., 1898. ╣ 478. Stb. 173-174.

[lxxxix] Prixodno-rasxodnaya kniga Vladimirskoj cheti 122 g. // Prixodno-rasxodnye knigi moskovskix prikazov. Kn. 1. (RIB. T. 28). Spb., 1912. St. 98.

[xc] RIB. T. 15. Spb., 1894. S. 179.

[xci] Riksarkivet, Stockholm, Ockupationsarkivet fran Novgorod, serie 2: 79:36.

[xcii] Riksarkivet, Stockholm, Ockupationsarckivet från Novgorod, serie I: 6:118, 159.

[xciii] RGADA, f. 1209, d. 708, l. 3; RGADA, f. 1209, op. 1, d. 16936, l. 8a - 8a ob.

[xciv] In the Alphabet of the greatа hereditary estate owners in Russia 1705-1717 O.A. Shvatchenko mentioned stolТnik Sergej Miloslavskij Ц the landowner of Obonezhskajaа and Shelonskaja pyatina. We can certainly plot that this Sergej is the descendant of Luka Miloslavskij, who had also owned village ZajanТe in early 17th c. and had no relation to boyar Miloslavskij (Shvatchenko .. Svetskie feodal'nye votchiny v e'poxu Petra I. M., 2002. S. 238-239).

[xcv] Riksarkivet, Stockholm,а Ockupationsarckivet från Novgorod, serie 2:73:30-31.

[xcvi] Riksarkivet, Stockholm,а Ockupationsarckivet fran Novgorod, serie 2: 88:2.

[xcvii] Riksarkivet, Stockholm, Ockupationsarckivet fran Novgorod, serie 2: 102-B.

[xcviii] Riksarkivet, Stockholm,а Ockupationsarckivet fran Novgorod, serie 2: 88:24.

[xcix] Some more data about him see in my book: Selin A.A. Ladoga pri moskovskix caryax. SPb.; Staraya Ladoga, 2003. S. 32.

[c] Novgorodskie zapisnye kabal'nye knigi 100-104 i 111 godov. M.; L., 1938. Chast' 1. St. 14-15.

[ci] SPbII, kol. 2, op. 1, d. 74, l. 131 ob.

[cii] Piscovaya kniga Obonezhskoj pyatiny pis'ma Andreya Lixachova i pod'yachego Lyapuna Dobrynina. 1563/64. In: Piscovye knigi Novgorodskoj zemli. T. 2. Piscovye knigi Obonezhskoj pyatiny XVI v. SPb., 1999. S. 155.

[ciii] SPbII, kol. 2, op. 1, d. 64, l. 36 ob.

[civ] SPbII, kol. 2, op. 1, d. 74, l. 246 ob.

[cv] SPbII, kol. 2, op. 1, d. 74, l. 259 ob.

[cvi] Myatezhnoe vremya. Sledstvennoe deloа o novgorodskom vosstanii 1650 goda. SPb.; Kishinev, 2001. ╣ 69. S. 179-180, et al

[cvii] Ibid. ╣ 31. S. 76-77.

[cviii] Riksarkivet, Stockholm,а Ockupationsarckivet fran Novgorod, serie 2:73:106-115; serie I: 136:352; serie 2:47:25.

[cix] SPbII, kol. 2, op. 1, d. 63, l. 54-55 ob.

[cx] SPbII, kol. 2, op. 1, d. 63, l. 9-10 ob.; SPbII, kol. 2, op. 1, d. 63, l. 30; Vestnik Obschestva Istorii i Drevnostej Rossijskih. T. 25. 1857. Smes'. S. 1-2 (July, 14, 1577 лtaken from archbishopТs diaks Menshoj Nefnev and Bakaka Pavlov money for clothes╗).

[cxi] Kniga piscovaya... S. 98.

[cxii] Veselovskij S.B. D'yaki i pod'yachieЕ S. 365.

[cxiii] SPbII, kol. 2, op. 1, d. 74, l. 54 ob.

[cxiv] Akty Istoricheskie. T. 1. SPb., 1841. ╣ 186. S. 348-349.

[cxv] Akty Istoricheskie. T. 2. SPb., 1841. ╣ 83. S. 112-113.

[cxvi] Piscovye knigi Obonezhskoj pyatiny 1496 i 1563 gg. In: Materialy po istorii narodov SSSR. Vyp. 1. L., 1930. S. 101; RGADA, f. 1209, d. 16936, l. 289-312.

[cxvii] Piscovye knigi Obonezhskoj pyatiny 1496 i 1563 gg... S. 102.

Hosted by uCoz